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Références consultées dans ce mémoire

Remarque : Plusieurs des références sont directement intégrées au document par hyperliens.

Allgeier, S., Frombold, B., Mingo, V. and C.A. Brṻhl, 2018.  European common frog Rana temporaria (Anura:Ranidae) larvae show subcellular responses underfield-relevant Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis (Bti) exposure levels. Environmental research  162, 271-279


Allgeier, S., Kästel, A. et Brühl, C.A., 2019. Adverse effects of mosquito control using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis: Reduced chironomid abundances in mesocosm, semi-field and field studies. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.169: 786-796.


“Considering the currently discussed worldwide insect decline we recommend a rethinking of the usage of the biocide Bti, and to prevent its ongoing application especially in nature protection reserves to enhance ecological resilience and to prevent boosting the current biodiversity loss.” Or, un autre aspect préoccupant dans ce dossier, c’est que le grand public est mal informé croit, à tort, que ce biocide ne détruit que les moustiques et les mouches noires. ”

“Abundance reductions occurred independently of the ecological complexity in the study design in artificial mesocosms as well as realistic field conditions. The considerable reduction of the abundant non-target chironomids along with mosquitoes may subsequently lead to unwanted indirect negative effects for birds, bats and other aquatic organisms feeding on midges. Hence, large-scale applications of Bti for mosquito control in seasonal wetlands should be considered more carefully. This is of special importance when these wetlands are parts of national parks, nature reserves or Natura 2000 sites that were created for the protection of nature and environmental health. ”

Allgeier, S., Friedrich, A., Brühl, C.A., 2019. Mosquitoe control based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) interrups artificial wetland food chains. Science of The Total Environement, Volume 686, 10 October 2019, Pages 1173-1184.


( L’article complet est disponible en PDF)

“The biocide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) has become the most commonly used larvicide to control mosquitoes in seasonal wetlands. Although Bti is considered non-toxic to most aquatic organisms, the non-biting chironomids show high susceptibilities towards Bti. As chironomids are a key element in wetland food webs, major declines in their abundance could lead to indirect effects that may be passed through aquatic and terrestrial food chains. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to address this hypothesis by assessing direct and indirect effects of Bti-modified availability of macroinvertebrate and zooplankton food resources on the predatory larvae of palmate and smooth newts (Urodelans: Lissotriton helveticus, Lissotriton vulgaris). We examined newt survival rates and dietary composition bymeans of stable isotope (δ15Nandδ13C) analysis in the presence of Bti treatment and a predator (Odonata: Aeshna cyanea). We assessed palmate newts’ body size at and time to metamorphosis while developing in Bti treated mesocosms. Chironomid larvae were the most severely affected aquatic invertebrates in all Bti treated food chains and experienced abundance reductions by 50 to 87%.Moreover, stable isotope analysis revealed that chironomids were preferred over other invertebrates and comprised the major part in newts’ diet (56%) regardless of their availability. The dragonfly A. cyanea decreased survival of newt larvae by 27% in Bti treated mesocosms showing affected chironomid abundances. Increasing intraguild predation is most likely favored by the Bti-induced reduction of alternative prey such as chironomid larvae. The decreased food availability after Bti treatment led to slightly smaller L. helveticus metamorphs while their developmental time was not affected. Our findings highlight the crucial role of chironomids in the food webs of freshwater ecosystems. We are also emphasizing the importance of reconsidering human-induced indirect effects of mosquito control on valuable wetland ecosystems particularly in the context of worldwide amphibian and insect declines”.

Anderson, Caroline, 4 novembre 2013. DocBébitte. Chironomes, maîtres des eaux.

Boisvert, Mario De´partement de Chimie-Biologie , Universite´du Que´bec a¤Trois-Rivie¤res , C.P. 500, Trois-Rivie¤res, Que´bec , Canada , G9A 5H7 & Boisvert, Jacques, Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Target  and Nontarget Organisms: A Review of Laboratory and Field Experiments, Journal of Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.10, 2000-Issue 5. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/095831500750016361

“Some studies show that some NTO are affected either by single or repeated Bti treatments. Very few studies have continued over many consecutive years. Boisvert and Boisvert (1999) also found that Bti crystals could be adsorbed rapidly onto vegetation and remain very toxic for 22 weeks. Despite treatments at recommended dosages or higher `overdosage ’ conditions, some adverse effects have been demonstrated among major groups of aquatic invertebrates living in the same aquatic environments as mosquito and black fly larvae. The `formulation additives’ or `inert ingredients’ (emulsifers, dispersants, antimicrobial agents etc.) added to crystals, spores and vegetative cells to make a formulation could have a direct effect on nontarget organisms. (Ce dernier détail en fait un produit qui n’est plus biologique, puisque nous ne savons pas ce que l’industrie y rajoute). They also observed that the growth of two species of green algae (Closterium sp. and Chlorella sp.) was greatly reduced (90± 99% reduction) during that period when compared to control basins. Apart from Chironomidae, seven other dipteran families with different feeding behaviour were affected by Bti. It should be remembered that some terrestrial Lepidopteran species can be affected by high dosages of Bti. There was limited evidence that suggested the reduction in black fly populations in response to Bti treatments, may have cascaded through the food web and negatively influenced the fish assemblages in the treatment zone of the Susquehanna River. A rare long-term study in wetlands has shown significant dramatic effects on diversity indices which involve NTO but only after three years of repeated treatments”.

Boisvert, Jacques, Lacoursière, Jean O., 2004. Le Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis et le contrôle

des insectes piqueurs au Québec, Québec, ministère de l’Environnement, Envirodoq  no ENV/2004/0278, 101 p., document préparé par l’Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières pour le ministère de l’Environnement du Québec. http://www.environnement.gouv.qc.ca/pesticides/virus-nil/bti/bti.pdf


Boyer, S. Tilquin, M. and P.Ravanel, 2007. Differential sensitivity to  Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis  and temephos in field mosquito populations of Ochlerotatus cataphylla (diptera;culicidae) toward resistance ? Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 26, 157-162


Colbrun, E.A., Weeks, S.C. et S.K. Reed, 2007. Diversity and Ecology of Vernal Pool Invertebrates. https://blogs.uakron.edu/weeks/files/2016/01/Colburn-et-al-Vernal-Pools-Book-Chapter.pdf

“All of the affected insects are important components of the food web, and removing them can have potentially wide-ranging, unintended ecosystem effects”

Conférence sur le Bti, Brigitte Poulin, Montréal, 5 juin 2019 :


CSPNB, 2012. Avis du Conseil Scientifique du Patrimoine Naturel et de la Biodiversité sur lʼemploi du Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) dans la lutte de ‘’confort ‘’contre les moustiques ‘’nuisants’’ et non vecteurs. Mémoire présenté par le groupe NON AU Bti (Citoyens de Labelle) à la commission de l’agriculture, des pêcheries, de l’énergie et des ressources naturelles Dans le cadre du Mandat d’initiative – Examiner les impacts des pesticides sur la santé publique et l’environnement, ainsi que les pratiques de remplacement innovantes disponibles et à venir dans le secteur de l’agriculture et de l’alimentation, et ce en reconnaissance de la complexité du secteur agroalimentaire québécois.

046M_046M_Groupe_de_citoyens_de_Labelle PDF sur le site de l’Assemblée nationale du Québec

 Duchet, C. Tetreau, G., Albane, M., Rey, D. Besnard G., Perrin Y., Paris, M. David, J.P. Lagneau, C. and L. Després, 2014. Persistence and recycling of bioinsecticidal  Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis spores in contrasting environments : evidence from field monitoring and laboratory experiments. Microbial ecology, 67, 576-586


 Duchet, C., Franquet, E., Lagadic, L. andC. Lagneau, 2015. Effects of  Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis and spinosad on adult emergence of the non-biting midges Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera : Chironomidae) in coastal wetlands. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 115, 272-278  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25728359

Ducks Unlimited. Insects on Call – Conserving Canada’s Wetlands


Ducrocq, Julie, 10 juin, 2019. Institut national de santé publique du Québec. Virus du Nil occidental 2018 : année record pour le Québec, Journal Le Soleil.

Ecotec, L’industrie faunique comme moteur économique régional, juin 2014.


Équipe de rétablissement de la Rainette faux-grillon de l’Ouest du Québec, 2019. Plan de rétablissement de la rainette faux-grillon de l’Ouest (Pseudacris triseriata) 2019-2029, produit pour le ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Direction générale de la gestion de la faune et des habitats. 65 p.


« La santé des populations de l’espèce en regard de contaminants devra être documentée. Les effets du Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (BTI) sur la physiologie et l’écologie de l’espèce devront être étudiés ».

Gouvernements fédéral, provinciaux et territoriaux du Canada, 2014. Enquête canadienne sur la nature 2012: connaissances, participation et dépenses liées aux activités récréatives,  de conservation et de subsistance axées sur la nature. Ottawa (Ontario), Conseils canadiens des ministres des ressources.  http://biodivcanada.ca/2A0569A9-77BE-4E16-B2A4COa64C2B9843/rapportEnqueteCdnSurLaNature 2012%28opt_accessible%29.pdf

Jacob, C and B. Poulin, 2016. Indirect effects of mosquito control using Bti on dragonflies ans damselflies (Odonata) in the Camargue. Insect Conservation and Diversity 9, 161-169  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/icad.12155

Kästel, Anna et al., 2017. Decreasing Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis sensitivity of Chironomus riparius larvae with age indicates potential environmental risk for mosquito control, Scientific Reports.

 Kästel, Anna, Allgeier, Stefanie & Brühl, Carsten, A. 2017. Decreasing Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis sensivity of Chironomus riparius larvae with age indicate potential environmental risk for mosquitoe control, Scientific Reports, Volume 7, Article No 13565.


Lagadic, L., Schäfer, R.B. Roucaute, M., Szὂcs, E., Chouin, S., de Maupeou, J., Duchet, C.,Franquet, E., Le Hunsec, B., Bertrand,C., Fayolle, S., Francés, B., Rozier, Y., Foussadier, R.,Santoni, J.B., et C. Lagneau, 2016. No association between the use of BTI for mosquito control and the dynamics of non target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands. Science of the Total Environment 553, 486-494.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930319

Lévesques, Kathleen, 30 mai, 2017. Vers un été noir de moustiques, La Presse.

OBV RPNS, 2019. Synthèse de l’information sur l’utilisation de Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis (Bti). Rapport préparé par l’Organisme des bassins versants des rivières Rouge, Petite Nation et Saumon, 10 p.  https://www.rpns.ca/utilisation-du-bti-pour-le-controle-des-insectes-piqueurs

Mazzacano, C. et S.H. Black, 2013. Ecologically Sound Mosquito Management in Wetlands. An Overview of Mosquito Control Practices, the Risks, Benefits, and Nontarget Impacts, and Recommendations on Effective Practices that Control Mosquitoes, Reduce Pesticide Use, and Protect Wetlands. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland, OR. 63 p. https://www.academia.edu/35112273/Mazzacano_2013_Mosquito_management_guidelines

“Biopesticides such as Bti are highly toxic to true flies (Diptera), which includes a variety of organisms that comprise a large proportion of the animal biomass are an important food source for aquatic invertebrates, fish, amphibians, bats, waterfowl, wading birds and some passerine birds in wetlands such as non-biting midges, shore flies, and gnats. Widespread and repeated Bti applications thus have the potential to severely disrupt local food webs and change wetland community composition.”

Paris, Margot, 2010. Évolution de la résistance au bactério-insecticide Bti chez les moustiques, p. 239.

Poulin, Brigitte et al, 2013. Rapport final sur le suivi scientifique annuel mené en 2012 en parallèle aux opérations de démoustication au Bti sur le périmètre du Parc Naturel Régional de Camargue.   http://www.parccamargue.fr/getlibrarypublicfile.php/d1b9f310e594f7d316943bc71a53633d/parc-camargue/_/collection_library_fr/201600024/0001/Rapport_suivis_Bti_2014.pdf

Riopel, Alexis, juillet 2019. La déchéance des insectes. Québec-Science.


 Sanchez-Bayo, F., Wyckhuys, K.A.G., avril 2019. Worldwide decline of the entomofauna : A review of its drivers,  Science Direct, Biological Conservation, Volume 232, Pages 8-27.

Santé Canada, 2013. Fiche technique sur le Bti- Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis (Bti); https://www.canada.ca/fr/sante-canada/services/securite-produits-consommation/ rapports-publications/pesticides-lutte-antiparasitaire/fiches-renseignements-autres-ressources/ bacillus-thuringiensis-variete-israelensis.html

Sekercioglu, H.C., 2017. Analysis : The economical value of birds. The Cornell Lab of ornithology-All about birds.  https://www.allaboutbirds.org/analysis-the-economic-value-of-birds/

Sirinathsinghji, E., 2016. Commercial Formulations of Bt Toxins Lethal to Amphibians. ISIS Pesticides Santé. The Institute of Science in Society, France.


“A new study finds that commercial formulations of a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subtype, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is toxic to tadpoles of an Argentinian species of frog at environmentally relevant concentrations. This work highlights the falsity of the claim that Bt is specific to target organisms and thus benign to non-target organisms. A recent study also questions the claim that Bti products do not persist in the environment, with their proliferation being detected on leaf litter in the French Alps that were closely related to commercial but not natural strains”.

Société Radio-Canada, Léouzon, Roxanne, 14 juillet, 2019. Faune et Flore. Le plus grand refuge faunique en voie d’être créé en Outaouais.

Société Radio-Canada, Deschênes, Jean-François, 30 mars 2019. ICI Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Chasse et Pêche, Vers une diminution du nombre de truites mouchetées pêchées en Gaspésie.

Société Radio-Canada, Lévesque-Boucher, Jérôme, 2017. ICI Bas-Saint-Laurent, Environnement,  Une municipalité s’attaque aux moustiques.

Timmermann, U. and N. Becker. 2017. Impact of routine Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis (Bti) treatment on the availibility of flying insects as prey for aerial feeding predators. Bulletin of Entomogical Research, 1-10   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28202094

Tour du Valaat, 1954-2014, 60 ans d’engagement pour les zones humides et les hommes, Centre de recherche pour la conservation des zones humides méditerranéennes.       https://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/tourduvalat_60_ans.pdf 

University of Illinois, 2004. Wetlands and Mosquitoes, Home Horts Hints, Yard and Garden Use for Northen Illinois.

Wolfram, G., Wenzl, P. and H. Jerrentrup, 2018. A multi- year study following BACI design reveals no shorterm impact of BTi on chironomids (Diptera) in a floodplain in Eastern Austria. Eviron. Monit. Assess, 190-709   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30413967



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